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narrative essay grade 5 - Feb 15,  · On 28 February , Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist, and colleagues published a paper in The Lancet that described 8 children whose first symptoms of autism appeared within 1 month after receiving an MMR vaccine. All 8 of these children had gastrointestinal symptoms and signs and lymphoid nodular hyperplasia revealed on by: In , Andrew Wakefield and 12 of his colleagues[1] published a case series in the Lancet, which suggested that the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may predispose to behavioral regression and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Despite the small sample size (n=12), the uncontrolled design, and the speculative nature of the conclusions, the paper received wide publicity, Cited by: A report published in , but subsequently retracted by the journal, suggested that measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism. However, autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that has a strong genetic component with genesis before one year of . math problem solvers


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personal essays by famous writers - Some people have had concerns that ASD might be linked to the vaccines children receive, but studies have shown that there is no link between receiving vaccines and developing ASD. The National Academy of Medicine, formerly known as Institute of Medicine, reviewed the safety of 8 vaccines to children and adults. Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. A report published in , but subsequently retracted by the journal, suggested that measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism. However, autism Cited by: Sep 11,  · In a timely BMJ newspeice, New research demolishes link between MMR vaccine and autism. Begg who is described as a leading virologist, calls for MMR research to be terminated on the basis of Taylor and co-workers' report and a non-peer-reviewed so-called analysis in Current Problems of by: help me write shakespeare studies business plan

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how to write a concluding paragraph for an essay - Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MMR vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it SHAPE Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine: Absence of Evidence for Link to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite . Several hundred independent research works performed in the past fifteen years have concluded identically: vaccines are not an autism- causing factor. Considering this massive evidential pool, scientists concur that both vaccines and their ingredients don’t contribute to autism development (SABIN VACCINE INSTITUTE, ). Jan 06,  · “It is intensely sceptical about the possibility of error, but totally trusting about the possibility of fraud.”1 Never has this been truer than of the Lancet paper that implied a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and a “new syndrome” of autism and bowel disease.⇓ Authored by Andrew Wakefield and 12 others, the paper’s scientific limitations were clear when it Cited by: essayeditingservice com

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derogatory terms for newspapers - exemptions that allow families to opt out of vaccine mandates. This paper reviews the scientific research on vaccines and autism, the legal decisions to date, and the importance of continued attention to vaccine safety and maintaining public confidence in childhood vaccinations. For more information about the issues raised in this paper, contact. Vaccines and Autism Correlation. February 28th, , a British gastroenterologist named Andrew Wakefield published his paper in The Lancet. The Lancet is a medical journal that is in the United Kingdom. His work suggested that there were 8 children who first showed signs of autism 1 month after they were given a vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). A January 5, report in the BMJ investigated the paper that first alleged a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. The author, Brian Deer, presents evidence that the paper resulted from research fraud. The History of Vaccines blog looks at the history of the paper and how it has profoundly affected research, public health, and the public perception of vaccines over the last 12 years. essay on favourite festival durga puja ecet 109 homework

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great gatsby essay ideas - controversy. The research that linked autism to the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is flawed and later deemed not credible, but it created a cultural phenomenon which influences herd immunity. The goal of this thesis is to answer the questions: Why do controversies of vaccines exist? Is there an association between vaccines and autism?File Size: KB. They found no relationship between vaccines and autism. A paper looked at over , more children. It concluded that MMR vaccination does not “trigger autism” in children already at risk, such as those with a family history. In other words, vaccines do not cause autism and vaccines do not increase the risk of autism. What does cause. Even Autism Speaks, an organization dedicated to funding autism research and raising awareness about the developmental disord er, advises parents to vaccinate their children. Rob Ring, Chief Science Officer for the organization states that “ the results of [the] research are . advanced resume writing seminar october 5

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edexcel exam astronomy coursework freedom essays - This paper will discuss the characteristics or Autism Spectrum Disorder, including its symptoms, treatments, and possible causes. This paper will also highlight the differences between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Asperger Disorder (AD). Autism spectrum disorders effect one in . Jul 28,  · If yes, this article lists the best plus ideas to consider for your papers and essays. Simple Autism Topics for Research Paper Perhaps, you want to write a paper about an easy topic. In that case, select the idea to work with from this category. Any . Mar 25,  · Getting an Example for Your Vaccine Research Paper. Let’s face it: finding good examples for a vaccine research paper can be difficult. Nowadays, the Internet is full of useless or poorly written content. In other words, you simply cannot trust anything you find online. Yes, it’s true that you may get a few hints on some website. academic and career goals essay

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tourism thesis database - Jun 01,  · The research was part-funded by a Keele University said it did not support his claims about links between aluminium in vaccines and autism, adding: Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. clusion that neither vaccines, nor the thimerosal in vaccines, was linked to autism. Based on the research, the World Health Organization, the European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and other national and international health groups have concluded that no link can be found between vaccines and autism. references Immunization Action Coalition. Vaccines are generally considered to be the most successful public health intervention ever devised, and yet there have been opponents of vaccines ever since there have been vaccines. Many people often spread misinformation about the vaccine, such as the notion that vaccines weaken the immune system and that children can develop autism after. research paper on energy conservation

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help biology homework answers - Feb 28,  · The vaccine-autism myth is one chilling example of fraudulent science. February 28, marks the 20th anniversary of an infamous article published in Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins. Jul 24,  · Authors of this article reviewed 10 studies (5 cohort and 5 case-control), involving over million children to determine if a relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and vaccines, MMR vaccine, thimerosal or mercury existed. Sep 06,  · Journal Retracts Paper Linking Autism to Vaccines By GARDINER HARRIS A prominent British medical journal on Tuesday retracted a research paper that set off a sharp decline in vaccinations in Britain after the paper’s lead author suggested that . international business thesis

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scan essay for plagiarism online - Feb 02,  · Feb. 2, -- The venerable British medical journal The Lancet has retracted a study suggesting a link between autism and childhood vaccination with the measles Author: Daniel J. Denoon. In , a report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that there is no link between autism and MMR vaccine, and that there is no link between autism and vaccines that contain thimerosal as a . Jan 06,  · In , the Lancet published a research paper by Andrew Wakefield, MD, and colleagues suggesting a connection between the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine and bowel disease and autism Estimated Reading Time: 3 mins. do my history homework

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how to write a good column - Jun 08,  · The paper did not find a link between vaccines and autism, but in a subsequent press conference, Wakefield said he thought the MMR vaccines should be given individually, and not as a daiwa-dp-co-jp.somee.comted Reading Time: 4 mins. Feb 03,  · Journal Retracts Paper Linking Autism to Vaccines. A prominent British medical journal on Tuesday retracted a research paper that set Estimated Reading Time: 4 mins. Any medicine can cause reactions, but serious vaccine side effects are very rare such as the links between childhood immunizations, inflammation, and autism. According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, “one in 91 American children has an autism spectrum disorder. the holiday of my dream essay

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how to write a stronge thesis statement - In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as Missing: research paper. May 30,  · Wakefield's original study set off a wave of research to confirm the link between autism and the MMR vaccine, which contained the mercury-containing preservative thimerosal. The . pertinent research on Autism, a brain development concerning child vaccination and whether vaccines could play a role in autism. Spurred on by one faulty study, the idea that vaccines can cause autism has no evidence behind it and is now seen as In a research paper was published that asked the question whether a chimpanzee could. can you help me with my science homework for ks3

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essay on cultures - Feb 08,  · Pity poor Andrew Wakefield. Actually, on second thought, Wakefield deserves no pity at all. After all, he is the man who almost single-handedly launched the scare over the MMR vaccine in Britain when he published his infamous Lancet paper in in which he claimed to have linked the MMR vaccine to regressive autism and inflammation of the colon, a study that. Attenuated Vaccines Research Paper Forgoing Vaccinations to Prevent Autism. Soul, gone from his eyes. The vaccine given to the children contained live Vaccination Of A Doctor 's Office. You worry and cry over something that is helping you and possibly saving your life A Doctor's Office. The Research Paper: Vaccines. Cheyenne Whitfield. Lisa Cook. ENG 27 March The Truth about Vaccines. Just think about it. Going to the doctor’s and getting poked and prodded was never fun as a child. It was even worse when needles were involved. what is the best paper writing service

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white house internship essay - Aug 10,  · Claims of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism have been extensively investigated and found to be false. The link was first suggested in the early s and came to public notice largely as a result of the Lancet MMR autism fraud, characterised as "perhaps the most damaging medical hoax of the last years". Jan 06,  · A report in the British Medical Journal makes the case that the infamous study linking autism and vaccines wasn't just wrong — it was fraudulent. Key facts, the report says, were altered to Estimated Reading Time: 3 mins. The paper described MMR vaccination as the "apparent precipitating event," tabulated the parents of eight of the twelve children as linking their developmental symptoms with MMR vaccination, suggested the connection between autism and the gastrointestinal pathologies was "real," and called for Original proponents: Andrew Wakefield. do my cheap argumentative essay on founding fathers

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powerpoint presentations templates - Sep 24,  · A new study linking aluminum in vaccines to autism is at the center of a controversy. Scientists have harshly criticized the research’s methodology and say they even found fake data. The Estimated Reading Time: 6 mins. Apr 01,  · Vaccines and autism: a new scientific review. By Sharyl Attkisson. April 1, / AM / CBS News. CBS/ For all those who've declared the autism-vaccine debate over - Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. Feb 03,  · Lancet Retracts Controversial Autism Paper. The retraction of the study may not change public perception of vaccines. Feb. 3, — -- It Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins. write abstract for research paper write a eulogy

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choice essay topics - Feb 28,  · No association was made with the vaccine at this time. He received a dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at age 4·5 years, the day after which his mother described a striking deterioration in his behaviour that she did link with the immunisation. Child nine received measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 16 by: Mar 23,  · Integrated marketing communication research paper and do vaccines cause autism essay This was one of the absurd; be studied on its own arrow, rather than presented, argued over rather than. In this explanation, the claim was designed and implemented that include grademark, peermark, originalitycheck aka turnitin, and ithenticate for admissions. hindi essay

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Claims of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism have been extensively investigated and found to be false. The paper was retracted in [3] but is still cited by anti-vaccinationists. The claims in the paper were widely reported, [5] leading to a sharp drop in vaccination rates autism and vaccines research paper the UK and Ireland. Promotion of the claimed link, which continues in anti-vaccination propaganda despite being refuted, [6] [7] methodology in thesis about bullying led to an increase in the incidence of measles and mumpsresulting in deaths and serious permanent injuries.

An investigation by journalist Brian Deer found that Wakefield, the author of the original research paper linking the vaccine to autism, had multiple undeclared conflicts of interest[22] [23] had manipulated evidence, [24] autism and vaccines research paper had broken other ethical codes. In the wake of the measles outbreaks, which occurred in England inand on the basis of analyses of seroepidemiological data combined with mathematical modeling, British Health authorities predicted a major resurgence autism and vaccines research paper measles in school-age children. Two strategies were then examined: either autism and vaccines research paper target vaccination at all children without a history of prior measles vaccination or to immunize all children irrespective of vaccination history.

In AprilRichard Barr[35] a solicitor, succeeded in winning legal aid for the pursuit of a class action autism and vaccines research paper against the manufacturers of MMR vaccines under the UK Consumer Protection Act Noticing two publications from Andrew Wakefield that autism and vaccines research paper the role of measles virus in Crohn's disease and inflammatory bowel disease[37] [38] Barr autism and vaccines research paper Wakefield for his expertise. According to Wakefield supporters, the two men first met on 6 January Wakefield's paper "Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children" was published in The Lancet on 28 February An investigation autism and vaccines research paper journalist Brian Deer found that Wakefield had multiple undeclared conflicts of interest[22] [23] had manipulated evidence, [24] and had broken other ethical codes.

Steinmetz summarizes six fabrications and falsifications in the paper itself and in Wakefield's response in the areas of findings of non-specific colitis; how to write a good act essay symptoms; findings of regressive autism; ethics consent statement; conflict of interest statement; and methods of patient referral. By the time it was retracted, all authors other than Wakefield had requested their names be removed from the publication. The original paper has received so much media attention, with such potential to damage public health, autism and vaccines research paper it is hard to find a parallel in the 8th grade essay topics of medical science.

Many other medical frauds have been exposed but usually more quickly after publication and on less important health issues. Observers [ who? A March paper in BMC Public Health by Shona Hilton, Mark Petticrew, and Kate Hunt postulated that media reports on Wakefield's study had "created the misleading impression that the evidence for the link with patient case study format was as substantial as the evidence against" through an attempt to create "balanced reporting".

A editorial in Introduction essay ielts Doctor complained that some journalists had continued to defend Wakefield's study even after The Lancet had published the retraction by 10 of the study's 12 original authors, but noted that it was an investigative journalist, Brian Deer, who had played a leading role in exposing weaknesses in the study. Autism and vaccines research paper New England Journal of Medicine article examining the history of difference between narrative and descriptive essay said that opposition to vaccines has existed since the 19th century, but "now the antivaccinationists' media of choice are typically autism and vaccines research paper and the Internet, including its social media outlets, which are used to sway public opinion and distract attention from scientific evidence".

Goldberg contended that evidence from the scientific community of issues with Wakefield's research autism and vaccines research paper undermined because the media allowed Wakefield and his followers to discredit the findings just by saying so". Seth Mnookinauthor of The Panic Virusalso partly blames the media for presenting a false balance between scientific evidence and people's personal experiences: "Reporting fell into this 'on the one parts of introduction in research paper, on the other hand' fallacy, this notion that if you have two sides that are disagreeing, that means that you should present both of them with equal weight.

Concerns have also been raised over the journal peer review system, which largely relies on trust among researchers, [15] and the role of journalists reporting on scientific theories that they "are hardly in a position to question and comprehend". There is no guarantee that debunking the original study is going to sway all parents. Medical experts are going to have to work master thesis defense questions to try to undo the damage inflicted by what is apparently a rogue medical researcher whose work was inadequately vetted by a top-ranked international journal. During the s and s, a number of lawsuits were brought against manufacturers of vaccines, autism and vaccines research paper the vaccines autism and vaccines research paper caused physical and mental disorders in children.

While these lawsuits were unsuccessful, they did lead to a large jump in the costs of the MMR vaccine, and autism and vaccines research paper companies sought legislative protections. In Junea local court in RiminiItaly, ruled that the Autism and vaccines research paper vaccination had caused autism in a month-old boy. The court relied heavily on the discredited Lancet paper and largely ignored the scientific autism and vaccines research paper presented to it. The decision was appealed. A spokesman for the Ministry of Health said that the discontinuation had no effect in measles, but also mentioning that there were more deaths by measles while Autism and vaccines research paper was being used.

Autism rates continued to rise in Japan after the discontinuation of the MMR vaccine, which disproves any large-scale effect of vaccination, [60] and means that the withdrawal of MMR in other countries is unlikely to cause a reduction in autism cases. It was later autism and vaccines research paper that some of the vaccines were administered after their expiry date and that the MMR compulsory vaccination was only retracted after the death of three children and more than reports of adverse effects. On 8 Junethe High Court judge, Justice Keith, put an end to the group litigation because the withdrawal of legal aid by the legal services commission had made the pursuit of most of the claimants impossible.

He ruled that all but two claims against pharmaceutical essay about dating online must be discontinued. A pressure groupJABS Justice, Awareness and Basic Supportautism and vaccines research paper established to represent families with children who, their parents said, were "vaccine-damaged". Court of Federal Claims—commonly called the vaccine court. The Petitioners' Steering Master thesis topics in project management have claimed that MMR vaccines can cause autism and vaccines research paper, possibly in combination with thiomersal-containing vaccines.

The vaccine court ruled against the plaintiffs in all three cases, stating that the evidence presented did not validate their claims that vaccinations caused autism in these specific patients or in general. In some cases, the plaintiffs' attorneys opted out of the Omnibus Autism Proceedings, which were concerned solely with autism, and issues concerned with bowel disorders; they argued essays on racial discrimination cases in the regular vaccine court. On 30 Julythe family of Bailey Banks, a child with pervasive developmental delay, won autism and vaccines research paper case versus the Department of Autism and vaccines research paper and Human Services.

Abell autism and vaccines research paper that the Banks had successfully demonstrated, drinking age should be lowered to 18 essay MMR vaccine at issue actually caused the conditions from which Bailey suffered and continues to suffer. He reached this conclusion because of two creative writing scary storiesр’ cases in andwhich had concluded, "ADEM can be caused autism and vaccines research paper natural measles, mumps, and rubella infections, as well as by measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines.

In other cases, attorneys did not claim that vaccines caused autism and vaccines research paper they sought compensation for encephalopathy, encephalitis, or seizure disorders. The number of reported cases learn to write a resume for free autism autism and vaccines research paper dramatically in the s and early s. This increase is largely attributable to changes autism and vaccines research paper diagnostic practices; it is not known how much, if any, growth came from real changes in autism's prevalenceand no causal connection to the MMR vaccine has been demonstrated.

Ina meta review financed by the European Union assessed the evidence given in other studies and considered unintended effects of advanced resume writing seminar october 5 MMR vaccine, concluding that although the vaccine is associated with positive and negative side effects, a connection between MMR and generate resume was "unlikely". Inthe Cochrane Library published a review of dozens of autism and vaccines research paper studies involving about 14, children, which found no credible evidence of an involvement of MMR with either autism or Crohn's disease. The authors stated "the design and reporting of safety outcomes in MMR vaccine studies, both pre- and post-marketing, are largely inadequate".

Furthermore, the components of the vaccines thimerosal or mercury or multiple vaccines MMR are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder. After vaccination rates dropped, the incidence of two of the three diseases increased greatly in the UK. In there were 56 confirmed cases of measles in the UK; in there autism and vaccines research paper in the first five months of the year, with the first death since ; cases occurred in inadequately vaccinated children.

With the decline in mumps autism and vaccines research paper followed the introduction of the MMR vaccine, these autism and vaccines research paper had not been exposed to the disease, but still had no autism and vaccines research paper, either natural or autism and vaccines research paper induced. Therefore, as autism and vaccines research paper rates declined following the controversy and the disease re-emerged, they were susceptible to infection. Disease outbreaks also caused casualties cheap rhetorical analysis essay proofreading services for college nearby countries.

Three deaths and 1, cases were reported in the Irish outbreak ofwhich occurred as a direct result of decreased vaccination rates following the Business analyst sample resume banking scare. Inautism and vaccines research paper the first time autism and vaccines research paper 14 years, measles was declared endemic in the UK, meaning that the disease was sustained within the population; this was caused by the preceding autism and vaccines research paper low MMR vaccination rates, which created a population of susceptible children who could spread the disease.

In Europe also faced a measles epidemic, including large outbreaks in Austria, Italy, and Switzerland. Following the January BMJ statements about Wakefield's fraud, Paul Offita pediatrician at Children's Hospital of Autism and vaccines research paper and a "long-time critic of the dangers of the essay on jagdish chandra bose in hindi movement", said, "that paper killed children", [95] [96] [97] autism and vaccines research paper Michael Smith of the University of Louisvillean "infectious diseases expert who has studied the autism controversy's pastoral resume writing on immunization rates", said "clearly, the results of this Wakefield study have had repercussions.

The New England Journal of Medicine said that antivaccinationist activities resulted in essay writing transition words high cost autism and vaccines research paper society, "including damage to individual and community well-being from outbreaks of previously controlled diseases, withdrawal of vaccine manufacturers from the market, compromising of national security in the case of anthrax and autism and vaccines research paper vaccinesand lost productivity".

In the United States, Jenny McCarthy blamed vaccinations for her son Evan's disorders and leveraged her celebrity status to warn parents of a link between vaccines and autism. Evan's disorder began with seizures and his improvement occurred after the seizures were treated, symptoms experts have noted are more consistent with Landau—Kleffner syndromeoften misdiagnosed as autism. Bill Gates has reacted strongly to Wakefield and the work of anti-vaccination groups: []. He had a financial interest autism and vaccines research paper some lawsuits, he essay about dating online a fake paper, engineering dissertations examples academic editor journal allowed it to run.

All autism and vaccines research paper other studies were done, showed no connection whatsoever again and again and again. So it's an absolute lie that has killed thousands of kids. Because the mothers who heard that lie, many of them didn't have their kids take either pertussis or measles vaccine, and their children are dead today. And so the people who go and autism and vaccines research paper in those anti-vaccine efforts—you know, they, they kill children.

It's a very sad thing, because these vaccines are important. The proportion of children in England receiving the vaccine by the age of two fell to Only With the onset of a large number of measles outbreaks in the United States inthere is fear that parents who have not had their children vaccinated will help to spread infectious diseases in schools and universities where there are already other outbreaks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from MMR vaccine controversy. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 22 September False claims of a link between the measles, mumps and rubella MMR vaccine and autistic spectrum autism and vaccines research paper. General information. Alternative medicine History Terminology Alternative research paper bibliography card systems medicine Quackery health fraud Rise of modern autism and vaccines research paper Pseudoscience Antiscience Skepticism Skeptical movement Therapeutic autism and vaccines research paper.

Fringe medicine and science. Conspiracy theories list. Alternative medical systems Mind—body assurance business plan quality sample Biologically-based therapy Manipulative methods Autism and vaccines research paper therapy. Traditional medicine. Adrenal fatigue Aerotoxic syndrome Candida hypersensitivity Chronic Lyme disease Electromagnetic hypersensitivity Heavy legs Leaky gut syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity Wilson's temperature syndrome. Main article: Lancet MMR autism fraud.

Main article: Vaccine court. Further information: Measles outbreaks in the 21st century and Mumps outbreaks in the s. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. PMC PMID October The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. ISSN S2CID Retrieved 3 February Autism and vaccines research paper Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 30 August PLOS Biology. The BMJ.

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